What Is Pre-Infusion In Espresso?

pre-infusion espresso

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For coffee lovers and espresso enthusiasts, the pursuit of the perfect cup is a never-ending adventure. It’s a journey fueled by curiosity and a passion for uncovering that unique, unforgettable taste. Enter ‘pre-infusion’—a term that’s making waves in the world of coffee. 

In this article, we’ll break down pre-infusion and its potential to transform your coffee-making experience. With hands-on testing using my espresso machine, I’ll show you how this technique can take your brew to a whole new level. 

✔ Quick Answer

Pre-infusion in espresso making is the process of gently soaking the coffee grounds with hot water before full extraction, allowing them to swell and release carbon dioxide. This step helps achieve a more even extraction, reducing channeling and leading to a smoother, more balanced espresso shot.

So, let’s dive into the world of espresso and unlock the secrets to exceptional coffee.

Pre-Infusion In Espresso: An Overview

Pre-infusion is a technique used in the espresso-making process to ensure optimal extraction of flavor from coffee grounds. It involves gently pre-brewing espresso by saturating the coffee grounds with a small amount of water flow at a lower pressure before applying full pressure for the actual extraction.

This allows for a more even and controlled saturation of the coffee grounds, which can enhance the overall quality of the espresso.

There are many benefits to using pre-infusion when making espresso. Firstly, it helps to prevent channeling, a common issue that can occur when water finds an easier path through the coffee puck, often resulting in uneven extraction.

By pre-wetting the coffee grounds, the extraction process becomes more uniform, leading to more balanced flavors and a better-tasting espresso.

This infusion process also helps to mitigate issues arising from coffee grounds that are unevenly compacted, or if the grind size is not perfect. By providing an initial saturation, the grounds have a chance to expand and settle more evenly, reducing the chances of inconsistent extraction.

Additionally, pre-infusion allows for a more forgiving espresso-making experience. Even for experienced baristas, it can be challenging to consistently achieve the perfect grind size, tamp, and pressure.

Integrating a simple pre-infuse in the espresso-making process can increase the chances of pulling a delicious and well-extracted espresso shot, even with minor variations in these factors.

fun fact about pre infusion in espresso

To implement this technique, there are a few approaches that can be used. Some of the best home espresso machines come with a built-in pre-infusion function that can be manually or automatically adjusted.

For those without this feature, other methods such as a manual soft pre-infusion or a timed pause can be utilized.

Different Types Of Pre-Infusion

When it comes to pre-infusion, there are a few common methods utilized by espresso machines. In general, these pre-brewing espresso methods can be categorized into three primary types: manual, automatic, and pressure profiling.

Manual Pre-Infusion allows the barista to have full control over the process, typically achieved by partially opening the brew valve to slowly saturate the coffee grounds. This method is popular among experienced baristas, who can determine the optimal infusion time based on factors like grind size, coffee bean characteristics, and personal preferences.

Automatic Pre-Infusion is a feature found in many modern espresso machines and offers a consistent, hands-free approach.

These machines are programmed to saturate the coffee grounds for a specific amount of time and then initiate the extraction process with programmed bars of pressure. Automatic pre-infusion ensures a consistent espresso extraction without relying on the skills of the barista, making it suitable for both beginners and busy coffee shops.

Pressure Profiling is a more advanced technique, typically found in high-end espresso machines. With pressure profiling, the machine gradually increases the brewing pressure throughout the pre-infusion stage and into the extraction phase.

This method enables the adjustment of extraction time, pressure, and flow rate, resulting in a highly customizable brewing experience. Some machines even offer pre-set profiles or allow the user to create custom profiles to achieve the desired espresso characteristics.

Each of these methods has its advantages and challenges, and the choice ultimately depends on the espresso machine’s capabilities and the barista’s preferences.

How To Pre-Infuse Espresso?

Now you have a better understanding of pre-infusing let’s take a closer look at how to incorporate this technique in your espresso-making process.

To perform espresso pre-infusion, follow these steps:

  1. Prepare your home espresso machine: Make sure your espresso machine is clean, warmed up, and has enough water. Also, ensure the portafilter and basket are in good condition.
  2. Grind and dose your coffee: Choose freshly roasted coffee beans, and grind them to a fine consistency, similar to powdered sugar. Weigh your coffee grounds, aiming for 18-20 grams, depending on your basket size and taste preference.
  3. Distribute and tamp your coffee: Evenly distribute the ground coffee in the basket by tapping the portafilter or using a distribution tool. Tamp the coffee bed with consistent pressure, creating a flat and level surface for the water to pass through.
  4. Insert the portafilter: Attach the portafilter to the espresso maker’s group head, and ensure it is seated correctly to avoid leaks.
  5. Start the pre-infusion: Some espresso machines include pre-infusion settings, so follow the manufacturer’s instructions for the optimal duration and pressure. If your machine lacks this functionality, you can manually perform pre-infusion by slightly opening the brew lever or activating the boiler pump for a few seconds so the water saturates the coffee. How long does it take to pre-infuse espresso? A good rule of thumb is to aim for 2-4 seconds with a low water pressure of 2-4 bar.
  6. Begin full-pressure extraction: After pre-infusion, immediately increase the pressure to extract your espresso. Most espresso machines operate at 9 bars, but you can experiment with pressure to find what works best for your taste preferences and chosen coffee beans.
  7. Monitor the shot: Observe the extraction process, specifically the flow rate, color, and volume of your shot. A well-executed pre-infusion should result in a steady, even flow and a balanced, flavorful espresso. Aim for 25-30 seconds of extraction time for a standard double espresso.

By letting water saturate the coffee puck, you can enjoy a smoother, more balanced shot with enhanced flavor profiles and reduced bitterness.

Remember, consistency and practice are vital when it comes to perfecting your espresso technique. 

pre-infusion espresso diagram

Benefits Of Espresso Pre-Infusion

As we’ve explained, pre-infusion is a technique widely used in espresso preparation that involves gently soaking coffee grounds with a small amount of water just before applying full pressure. 

This method offers a few benefits that will improve the quality of your espresso.

Firstly, adding about 2 bars of water to the coffee puck will help to enhance the flavor extraction by allowing the water to penetrate the coffee grounds evenly.

This process helps avoid channeling, where water finds the path of least resistance through the coffee puck, leading to uneven extraction and a weaker, less flavorful espresso.

Another advantage is reducing the risk of over-extraction. During pre-infusion, the coffee grounds will expand and create a more uniform coffee puck.

This ensures that the hot water interacts with the coffee grounds uniformly, extracting the desirable flavors without introducing bitter or unpleasant tastes.

Pre-infusion also improves the espresso’s crema, the golden layer of froth that forms the top layer of a well-pulled espresso shot. A more even extraction and better solubles distribution result in a richer, creamier crema, enhancing the espresso’s visual and sensory appeal.

Lastly, consistent brewing results are achieved. By ensuring a uniform coffee puck and even water distribution, the technique produces a more consistent espresso from shot to shot, making it easier for baristas to achieve that perfect balance of flavors in each cup.

Drawbacks Of Pre-Infusion

Despite the various benefits of pre-infusion in the espresso-making process, there are some drawbacks that may discourage some baristas from using this technique.

One such drawback is the additional time it takes to perform espresso pre infusion. During the process, water is slowly introduced into the espresso grounds before full pressure is applied. This process can add several seconds to the overall brewing time, which can be a significant concern in busy coffee shops where serving customers quickly is paramount.

Another potential drawback of pre-infusion is the need for specialized equipment. Not all espresso machines come with pre-infusion settings or capabilities.

In order to take advantage of this technique, a barista may need to invest in a new, more expensive machine or modify their existing one. This can be a substantial financial investment and may not be justifiable for smaller operations or those on a tight budget.

Mark Morphew pulls two espresso shots using pre-infusion

Moreover, the success largely depends on the skill of the barista. Ensuring that the pre-infusion process is well-executed and consistent requires an understanding of factors such as grind size, water temperature, and pressure.

Baristas without proper training or experience may find it challenging to master a puck at a lower pressure, potentially leading to inconsistent espresso quality.

Finally, some coffee aficionados argue that pre-infusion can dilute the flavor and aroma of certain espresso blends. While pre-infusion can enhance the extraction process, bringing out a more balanced flavor in some cases, it may also result in a milder, less intense-tasting shot of espresso.

This is a matter of personal preference, and some coffee enthusiasts may prefer the bolder flavor profiles achieved without pre-infusion when pulling the espresso shot.


Pre-infusion has revolutionized the world of coffee, offering both advantages and considerations.

The benefits when carrying out this technique are clear: it ensures even flavor extraction, reduces the risk of over-extraction, enhances crema, and provides consistency in brewing.

However, it’s not without drawbacks. Pre-infusion adds time, may require specialized equipment, demands skill, and could mellow certain espresso blends’ intensity.

Ultimately, coffee pre-infusion is a path worth exploring for espresso enthusiasts. It enhances your coffee experience, offering a smoother, balanced cup. So, consider giving it a try and enjoy the unique flavors it can unlock in your espresso.


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